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20.6.6  Critical appraisal of qualitative studies

Blaxter M. Criteria for evaluation of qualitative research. Medical Sociology News 1996; 22: 68-71.

CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme). 10 Questions to make sense of qualitative research [2006]. Available from: (accessed 1 January 2008).

Dixon-Woods M, Shaw RL, Agarwal S, Smith JA. The problem of appraising qualitative research. Quality and Safety in Healthcare 2004; 13: 223-225.

Elder NC, Miller WL. Reading and evaluation qualitative research studies. Journal of Family Practice 1995; 41: 279-285

Forchuk C, Roberts J. How to critique qualitative research articles. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 1993; 25: 47-55.

Horsburgh D. Evaluation of qualitative research. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2003; 12: 307-312.

Malterud K Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet 2001; 358: 483-488.

Popay J, Rogers A, Williams G. Rationale and standards for the systematic review of qualitative literature in health service research. Qualitative Health Research 1998; 8: 341-351.

Secker J, Wimbush E, Watson J, Milburn K. Qualitative methods in health promotion research: some criteria for quality. Health Education Journal 1995; 54: 74-87.

Spencer L, Ritchie J, Lewis J, Dillon L. Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: A Framework for Assessing Research Evidence. London (UK): Government Chief Social Researcher’s Office, 2003.

Vermeire E, Van Royen P, Griffiths F, Coenen S, Peremans L, Hendrickx K. The critical appraisal of focus group research articles. European Journal of General Practice 2002; 8: 104-108.