This is an archived version. For the current version, please go to training.cochrane.org/handbook/current.

18.5.1  What an IPD review cannot fix

Although the IPD approach can help avoid problems associated with the analyses and reporting of studies, it cannot, generally, help avoid bias associated with study design or conduct. If there are such problems (which would also be reflected in study publications and any systematic reviews based upon them), the study may need to be excluded from the meta-analysis.