This is an archived version of the Handbook. For the current version, please go to or search for this chapter here.

13.9  References

Audige 2004  
Audige L, Bhandari M, Griffin D, Middleton P, Reeves BC. Systematic reviews of nonrandomized clinical studies in the orthopaedic literature. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2004: 249-257.

Chan 2004  
Chan AW, Hróbjartsson A, Haahr MT, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG. Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. JAMA 2004; 291: 2457-2465.

Concato 1992  
Concato J, Horwitz RI, Feinstein AR, Elmore JG, Schiff SF. Problems of comorbidity in mortality after prostatectomy. JAMA 1992; 267: 1077-1082.

Deeks 2003  
Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, D'Amico R, Sowden AJ, Sakarovitch C, Song F, Petticrew M, Altman DG. Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies. Health Technology Assessment 2003; 7: 27.

Doll 1993  
Doll R. Doing more good than harm: The evaluation of health care interventions: Summation of the conference. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993; 703: 310-313.

Downs 1998  
Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1998; 52: 377-384.

Eccles 1996  
Eccles M, Clapp Z, Grimshaw J, Adams PC, Higgins B, Purves I, Russel I. North of England evidence based guidelines development project: methods of guideline development. BMJ 1996; 312: 760-762.

Fraser 2006  
Fraser C, Murray A, Burr J. Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006; 6: 41.

Furlan 2006  
Furlan AD, Irvin E, Bombardier C. Limited search strategies were effective in finding relevant nonrandomized studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2006; 59: 1303-1311.

Glasziou 2007  
Glasziou P, Chalmers I, Rawlins M, McCulloch P. When are randomised trials unnecessary? Picking signal from noise. BMJ 2007; 334: 349-351.

Golder 2006a  
Golder S, Loke Y, McIntosh HM. Room for improvement? A survey of the methods used in systematic reviews of adverse effects. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006; 6: 3.

Golder 2006b  
Golder S, McIntosh HM, Duffy S, Glanville J, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and UK Cochrane Centre Search Filters Design Group. Developing efficient search strategies to identify reports of adverse effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Health Information and Libraries Journal 2006; 23: 3-12.

Golder 2006c  
Golder S, McIntosh HM, Loke Y. Identifying systematic reviews of the adverse effects of health care interventions. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006; 6: 22.

Greenland 2004  
Greenland S. Interval estimation by simulation as an alternative to and extension of confidence intervals. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 33: 1389-1397.

Grobbee 1997  
Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Confounding and indication for treatment in evaluation of drug treatment for hypertension. BMJ 1997; 315: 1151-1154.

Henry 2001  
Henry D, Moxey A, O'Connell D. Agreement between randomized and non-randomized studies: the effects of bias and confounding.
9th Cochrane Colloquium, Lyon (France), 2001.

Higgins 2003  
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 557-560.

Jefferson 2005  
Jefferson T, Smith S, Demicheli V, Harnden A, Rivetti A, Di Pietrantonj C. Assessment of the efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in healthy children: systematic review. The Lancet 2005; 365: 773-780.

King 2005  
King M, Nazareth I, Lampe F, Bower P, Chandler M, Morou M, Sibbald B, Lai R. Impact of participant and physician intervention preferences on randomized trials: a systematic review. JAMA 2005; 293: 1089-1099.

Kwan 2004  
Kwan J, Sandercock P. In-hospital care pathways for stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. Art No: CD002924.

MacLehose 2000  
MacLehose RR, Reeves BC, Harvey IM, Sheldon TA, Russell IT, Black AM. A systematic review of comparisons of effect sizes derived from randomised and non-randomised studies. Health Technology Assessment 2000; 4: 1-154.

Moher 2001  
Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman DG. The CONSORT Statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. The Lancet 2001; 357: 1191-1194. (Available from

National Health and Medical Research Council 1999  
National Health and Medical Research Council. A Guide to the Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines [Endorsed 16 November 1998]. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth of Australia, 1999.

Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine 2001  
Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. Levels of evidence [May 2001]. Available from: (accessed 1 January 8 2008).

Peto 1995  
Peto R, Collins R, Gray R. Large-scale randomized evidence: large, simple trials and overviews of trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1995; 48: 23-40.

Petticrew 2001  
Petticrew M. Systematic reviews from astronomy to zoology: myths and misconceptions. BMJ 2001; 322: 98-101.

Pocock 2004  
Pocock SJ, Collier TJ, Dandreo KJ, de Stavola BL, Goldman MB, Kalish LA, Kasten LE, McCormack VA. Issues in the reporting of epidemiological studies: a survey of recent practice. BMJ 2004; 329: 883.

Reeves 2004  
Reeves BC, Gaus W. Guidelines for reporting non-randomised studies. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und klassische Naturheilkunde 2004; 11 Suppl 1: 46-52.

Reeves 2006  
Reeves BC. Parachute approach to evidence based medicine: as obvious as ABC. BMJ 2006; 333: 807-808.

Reeves 2007
Reeves BC, Langham J, Linsday KW, Molyneux AJ, Browne JP, Copley L, Shaw D, Gholkar A, Kirkpatrick PJ. Findings of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial and the National Study of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in context.
British Journal of Neurosurgery 2007; 21: 318-323.

Rothman 1986  
Rothman KJ. Modern Epidemiology. Boston (MA): Little, Brown & Company, 1986.

Shadish 2002  
Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Siegfried 2003  
Siegfried N, Muller M, Volmink J, Deeks J, Egger M, Low N, Weiss H, Walker S, Williamson P. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. Art No: CD003362.

Taggart 2001  
Taggart DP, D'Amico R, Altman DG. Effect of arterial revascularisation on survival: a systematic review of studies comparing bilateral and single internal mammary arteries. The Lancet 2001; 358: 870-875.

Vandenbroucke 2007  
Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, Poole C, Schlesselman JJ, Egger M. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine 2007; 4: e297.

von Elm 2007  
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLOS Medicine 2007; 4: e296.

Wells 2008  
Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Available from: (accessed 1 January 2008).

Wieland 2005  
Wieland S, Dickersin K. Selective exposure reporting and Medline indexing limited the search sensitivity for observational studies of the adverse effects of oral contraceptives. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2005; 58: 560-567.