Front page
Handbook information
Part 1: Cochrane reviews
Part 2: General methods for Cochrane reviews
    5 Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies
    6 Searching for studies
    7 Selecting studies and collecting data
    8 Assessing risk of bias in included studies
    9 Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses
       9.1 Introduction
       9.2 Types of data and effect measures
          9.2.1 Types of data
          9.2.2 Effect measures for dichotomous outcomes
             Introductory text
             Box 9.2.a: Calculation of risk ratio (RR), odds ratio (OR) and risk difference (RD)
    Risk and odds
    Measures of relative effect: the risk ratio and odds ratio
    Warning: OR and RR are not the same
    Measure of absolute effect: the risk difference
    What is the event?
          9.2.3 Effect measures for continuous outcomes
          9.2.4 Effect measures for ordinal outcomes and measurement scales
          9.2.5 Effect measures for counts and rates
          9.2.6 Effect measures for time-to-event (survival) outcomes
          9.2.7 Expressing intervention effects on log scales
       9.3 Study designs and identifying the unit of analysis
       9.4 Summarizing effects across studies
       9.5 Heterogeneity
       9.6 Investigating heterogeneity
       9.7 Sensitivity analyses
       9.8 Chapter information
       Box 9.8.a: The Cochrane Statistical Methods Group
       9.9 References
    10 Addressing reporting biases
    11 Presenting results and 'Summary of findings' tables
    12 Interpreting results and drawing conclusions
Part 3: Special topics
Additional material