Front page
Handbook information
Part 1: Cochrane reviews
Part 2: General methods for Cochrane reviews
    5 Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies
    6 Searching for studies
    7 Selecting studies and collecting data
    8 Assessing risk of bias in included studies
       8.1 Introduction
       8.2 What is bias?
       8.3 Tools for assessing quality and risk of bias
       8.4 Introduction to sources of bias in clinical trials
       Table 8.4.a: A common classification scheme for bias
       8.5 The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias
       8.6 Presentation of assessments of risk of bias
       Figure 8.6.a: Example of a 'Risk of bias' table
       Figure 8.6.b: Example of a 'Risk of bias graph' Figure
       Figure 8.6.c: Example of a 'Risk of bias summary' Figure
       8.7 Summary assessments of risk of bias
       Table 8.7.a: Possible approach for summary assessments
       8.8 Incorporating assessments into analyses
       8.9 Sequence generation
       8.10 Allocation sequence concealment
       8.11 Blinding of participants and personnel
       8.12 Blinding of outcome assessment
       8.13 Incomplete outcome data
          8.13.1 Rationale for concern about bias
          8.13.2 Assessing risk of bias from incomplete outcome data
             Introductory text
    Low risk of bias due to incomplete outcome data
    High risk of bias due to incomplete outcome data
    Attempts to address missing data in reports: imputation
       8.14 Selective outcome reporting
       8.15 Other potential threats to validity
       8.16 Chapter information
       8.17 References
    9 Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses
    10 Addressing reporting biases
    11 Presenting results and 'Summary of findings' tables
    12 Interpreting results and drawing conclusions
Part 3: Special topics
Additional material